A common belief in the sixth century BCE was that the Earth was a flat disk floating on a vast expanse of water. The Greeks took this once step further, believing that the heavens formed a dome above, and the underworld formed a second dome below. A sphere, after all, is much more pleasing to visualize than a half-sphere.
Anaximander of Miletus (611 BCE) also held this belief, but tried to explain the heavens even further. His theory was that the sphere around the Earth was encased in fire contained in tubes. These tubes needed vents, which were the stars seen at night.
He tried to fit the Moon into this wild theory as well. Claiming it was a very large tube vent, he said that it constantly changed shape, creating the lunar phases. It seems that he had no explanation as to why the Moon appeared solid with fixed features such as craters.
Johannes Hevelius made several contributions to astronomy, but is best known for becoming one of the first men to produce an atlas of the Moon. Produced in 1647, his atlas named the various features of the Moon's surface. Even though his system was superseded by Riccoioli's in 1651, his atlas was very accurate for its time. Unfortunately, rumor has it that his original engraving on copper was melted down to make a tea set.
In 1824 Franz von Paula Gruithuisen theorized that the Moon's craters were formed by the impact of other space-going bodies. Before that, in 1822, he reported observing a city on the Moon. He claimed to see fantastic artificial works created by "lunarians" This city was supposedly protected by extensive fortifications. The "city" later turned out to be irregular ridges and jagged peaks.
Sir Wiliam Herschel firmly believed in lunar inhabitants. In 1789, in his journals, he reported seeing many odd things regarding the Moon. Herschel also saw towns, forests, and roads on the lunar surface. He even went so far as to say he saw a circus! Weirdly enough, his son, Sir John, was later used in a huge Moon alien hoax in 1835.
In 1835 a debt-ridden newspaper, the New York Sun, got a boost from a major hoax. Reporter Robert Locke made up a story of unbelievable proportions, yet people ate it up hook, line, and sinker.
He claimed to have information from a good source that a Sir John Herschel had discovered a civilization on the Moon made up of bat people with yellow skin. Animals and plants, up to 130 species, had also been found. Moon alien fever raged through the general population. A group of ministers even made plans to Christianize their new neighbors! Finally, some Yale scientists traced Locke down and forced him to admit fraud.
On a night in October 1939, a weather balloon caught fire and hit the ground near Strafford, Missouri. The next day, the local paper announced that the Moon had crashed and burned on a nearby highway. Not everyone believed it this time, especially when the Moon mysteriously reappeared in the sky that night.
In 1942 a Mr. Weisberger declared that the geological formations visible on the Moon weren't really there at all. He said that what we were seeing was nothing more than disturbances in the super-thick atmosphere around the Moon.
A man named M. K. Jessup theorized that pygmies traced their lineage back to Atlantis. Claiming that they were clever, he said that they had invented space ships. When Atlantis was in its last days, these pygmies supposedly jumped in their spaceships and moved to the Moon. These, he said, were the UFOs people were reporting.
In 1951, a Mr. Ocampo spread wild statements saying that the craters on the Moon were the result of two powerful races who destroyed themselves with nuclear weapons of incredible force.
Also in 1951, George Adamski, using a small telescope in his back yard, reported that the Moon was being used as a base of operations by aliens. He claimed to observe their comings and goings regularly.
In 1952, Adamski said that he met a real Venusian in California. He published his story, and naturally people believed it.
Howard Menger published a book in 1959 claiming that he made regular trips to the Moon on an alien space craft. He even had photos to prove it. His photos, however, were quite out of focus.
In a book, Don Wilson claims that NASA is covering up alien activity on the Moon. He takes his claims a step further by saying the Moon is a hollow alien spacecraft. What he doesn't say is why they parked it here.
Pale Moon doth rain, Red Moon doth blow; White Moon doth neither,
Rain nor snow.
A dark mist over the Moon is a promise of rain.
Clear Moon, frost soon.
The heaviest rains fall following the New and the Full Moons.
The Full Moon eats the clouds away.
A New Moon and a windy night, Sweep the cobwebs out of sight.
A Red Moon is a sure sign of high winds.
And should the Moon wear a halo of red, a tempest is nigh.
Many rings around the Moon signal a series of severe blasts.
A single ring around the moon that quickly vanishes heralds fine weather.
When the New Moon holds the Old Moon in its arms,
(ring around the New
Moon) disasters occur at sea.
Sharp horns on the Sickle Moon indicate strong winds.
When the moon's horns point up, the weather will be dry.
When the Moon's horns point down, rain spills forth.
Blunt horns on a Crescent Moon presage a long spell of fair weather.